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[152], The western two-thirds of Syria's Golan Heights region are since 1967 occupied by Israel and were in 1981 effectively annexed by Israel,[153][154] whereas the eastern third is controlled by Syria, with the UNDOF maintaining a buffer zone in between, to implement the ceasefire of the Purple Line. [129] The President is Head of State and the Prime Minister is Head of Government. [188], The economy is highly regulated by the government, which has increased subsidies and tightened trade controls to assuage protesters and protect foreign currency reserves. [195], As of 2012[update], Syria's oil and tourism industries in particular have been devastated, with US$5 billion lost to the ongoing conflict of the civil war. The modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. [197] Around 40% of all employees in the tourism sector have lost their jobs since the beginning of the war. If any book on this platform violates any copyrights, please inform us immediately and we shall take appropriate action. Religious courts handle questions of personal and family law. [248], In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 3.4% of the country's GDP. The executive branch consists of the president, two vice presidents, the prime minister, and the Council of Ministers (cabinet). When he died, power was taken by Qalawun. Under the previous constitution, Syria did not hold multi-party elections for the legislature,[135] with two-thirds of the seats automatically allocated to the ruling coalition. The UN Security Council condemned it in Resolution 497 (1981) as "null and void and without international legal effect." [191] Foreign investment is constrained by violence, government restrictions, economic sanctions, and international isolation. [45] The army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of Elam (modern Iran). Historically, the country produced heavy-grade oil from fields located in the northeast since the late 1960s. "[163] The US State Department funded Freedom House[164] ranked Syria "Not Free" in its annual Freedom in the World survey. 3–30. Heydemann, Steven. [212], Syrians are an overall indigenous Levantine people, closely related to their immediate neighbors, such as Lebanese, Palestinians, Jordanians and Jews. Syria was ranked last on the Global Peace Index from 2016 to 2018,[18] making it the most violent country in the world due to the war. Syria is significant in the history of Christianity; Saulus of Tarsus, better known as the Apostle Paul, was converted on the Road to Damascus and emerged as a significant figure in the Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria, from which he left on many of his missionary journeys. In 1925, Sultan al-Atrash led a revolt that broke out in the Druze Mountain and spread to engulf the whole of Syria and parts of Lebanon. The uprising had reached its climax in the 1982 Hama massacre,[89] when some 10,000 – 40,000 people were killed by regular Syrian Army troops. [166] Although Syria's constitution guarantees gender equality, critics say that personal statutes laws and the penal code discriminate against women and girls. Pg.110. Palmyra, a rich and sometimes powerful native Aramaic-speaking kingdom arose in northern Syria in the 2nd century; the Palmyrene established a trade network that made the city one of the richest in the Roman empire. It gained de jure independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945, when the Republic of Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate, although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. Seven new political parties took part in the elections, of which Popular Front for Change and Liberation was the largest opposition party. [90], Hafez al-Assad died on 10 June 2000. [176] This was designed to strengthen the position of sharecroppers and agricultural laborers in relation to land owners. For a relatively underdeveloped country, Syria's railway infrastructure is well maintained with many express services and modern trains. During the conflict, genocide against indigenous Christian peoples was carried out by the Ottomans and their allies in the form of the Armenian Genocide and Assyrian Genocide, of which Deir ez-Zor, in Ottoman Syria, was the final destination of these death marches. Syria holds the 7th largest Armenian population in the world. Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. The Egyptians fought the Hittites for control over western Syria; the fighting reached its zenith in 1274 BC with the Battle of Kadesh. During World War I, the Ottoman Empire entered the conflict on the side of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Article 75(1)2)(4)", "Decrees on Ending State of Emergency, Abolishing SSSC, Regulating Right to Peaceful Demonstration", "Syrian opposition takes Arab League seat", "Syria conflict: UK recognises opposition, says William Hague", "Syria: France backs anti-Assad coalition", "Obama says U.S. will recognize Syrian opposition", "Συρία: Βουλευτικές εκλογές για την διαπραγματευτική ενίσχυση Άσαντ", "Εκλογές στη Συρία, ενώ η εμπόλεμη κατάσταση παραμένει", "Syria reduces compulsory military service by three months", "Assad takes a page out of Russia's book in his war against rebels", General Assembly adopts broad range of texts, 26 in all, on recommendation of its fourth Committee, including on decolonization, information, Palestine refugees, CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Syria: U.S. Relations and Bilateral Issues, "CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Israeli-United States Relations", Travel advice: Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories, ICRC activities in the occupied Golan during 2007, http://golan-marsad.org/about/background/, "Political foe of Syrians wounded on Beirut street", "Syria among worst for rights abuses: HRW report", "More than 250 children among dead, U.N. says", "UN report: Syrian forces commit 'gross violations' of human rights, CNN", "200 massacred in Hama, claim Syrian activists", "Iran warns west against military intervention in Syria", "Christians Squeezed Out by Violent Struggle in North Syria", "Syria: Sunnis Threatening to Massacre Minority Alawites", "US launches missiles into Syria in response to chemical weapons attack", "Deadly nerve agent sarin used in Syria attack, Turkish Health Ministry says", "AT&T – 4G LTE, Cell Phones, U-verse, TV, Internet & Phone Service", "The Syrian Electronic Army Are at Cyber War with Anonymous", "Syria regime revenues shrink as losses mount", "Syria's economy cut in half by conflict", "Syria Weighs Its Tactics as Pillars of Its Economy Continue to Crumble", "Economic Challenges and Reform Options for Syria: A Growth Diagnostics Report", "Syria reverts to socialist economic policies to ease tension", "Syria's battling economy may hold on with help from friends", "Syria's ailing economy hits citizens and regime", "Syrian Economy To Shrink By 20 Percent in 2012 As Country Struggles With War", "Syrians struggle with shortages as economy buckles", "The Syrian Economy: Hanging by a Thread", "Isil seizes Syrian regime's lucrative phosphate mines", "IS blows up Syria gas pipeline serving capital: monitor", "String of losses in Syria leaves Assad regime increasingly precarious", "Syria raises fuel prices to snuff out black market, soothe unrest", "How to travel by train from London to Syria | Train travel in Syria", "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations", "Population Existed in Syria According To Censuses (1960, 1970, 1981, 1994, 2004) And Estimates of Their Number in Mid Years 2005–2011(000)", "U.N.: Syria Crisis Is 'Biggest Humanitarian Emergency of Our Era, "Syrian refugees top 3 million, half of all Syrians displaced – U.N.", "Demographic Data of Registered Population", "Extensive Female-Mediated Gene Flow from Sub-Saharan Africa into Near Eastern Arab Populations", "In the Wake of the Phoenicians: DNA study reveals a Phoenician-Maltese link", "Syria's Assyrians threatened by extremists – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East", "Turkey-Syria deal allows Syriacs to cross border for religious holidays", "UN refugee agency welcomes Brazil announcement of humanitarian visas for Syrians", "Inmigracion sirio-libanesa en Argentina", https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/syria/, "Death toll in Syria likely as high as 120,000: group", "Patriarch of Antioch: I will be judged if I do not carry the Church and each one of you in my heart", "Akram Raslan: How Caricatures Shake Tyranny", "Syria's Education System – Report – June 2001", "Forward Magazine, Interview with President of Damascus University", Forward Magazine, Interview with President of Aleppo University, May 2008, Orsam Suriye Türkleri Raporu-Orsam Syria Turks, Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Syria&oldid=1007808065, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, States and territories established in 1946, Articles with dead external links from March 2017, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Phoenician-language text, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February 2018, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Articles with disputed statements from April 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with multiple identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In 2008, a plenary session of the United Nations General Assembly voted by 161–1 in favor of a motion on the "occupied Syrian Golan" that reaffirmed support for UN Resolution 497. [156], In early 1976, Syria entered Lebanon, beginning their twenty-nine-year military presence. There are also many higher institutes in Syria, like the Higher Institute of Business Administration, which offer undergraduate and graduate programs in business. The fields are a natural extension of the Iraqi fields of Mosul and Kirkuk. [176], Telecommunications in Syria are overseen by the Ministry of Communications and Technology. During the fall of Assyria, the Scythians ravaged and plundered much of Syria. [223] The majority of Arab Argentines are from either Lebanese or Syrian background. In 1939, while Syria was still a French mandate the French ceded the Sanjak of Alexandretta to Turkey as part of a treaty of friendship in World War II. [249] The life expectancy at birth was 75.7 years in 2010, or 74.2 years for males and 77.3 years for females. [75] Meanwhile, a group of Syrian Ba'athist officers, alarmed by the party's poor position and the increasing fragility of the union, decided to form a secret Military Committee; its initial members were Lieutenant-Colonel Muhammad Umran, Major Salah Jadid and Captain Hafez al-Assad. Yamhad (modern Aleppo) dominated northern Syria for two centuries,[42] although Eastern Syria was occupied in the 19th and 18th centuries BC by the Old Assyrian Empire ruled by the Amorite Dynasty of Shamshi-Adad I, and by the Babylonian Empire which was founded by Amorites. [57], Control of Syria eventually passed from the Romans to the Byzantines, with the split in the Roman Empire. ] its land straddles the `` enemy of Allah '' and called for a underdeveloped! Instance, courts of appeals, and socialist movements, which led to a substantial of!: original URL status unknown (, Heydemann, Steven `` the faced... ] on 7 May 2012, Syria entered Lebanon, beginning their military. Forces sent to aid the PLO during the `` northwest of the United Nations lessened the threat of war [. For more information 1831, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt in three different groups and older is %! Relies on credit from Iran, Russia and China except for the Syrian Arab Republic from 1961 1963... To aid the PLO during the late 1960s, he had to surrender area! 'S power declined during later Umayyad rule ; this was designed to strengthen the position of sharecroppers and agricultural in... Suffered defeat and loss of control of the intermediate province of Turkey was formed demanded radical.. Semitic language, closely related to the 2012 constitution, which represented disaffected elements of Ottoman, French and! And North Africa region, broadly synonymous with the split in the intersection the... ( Marcus Julius Philippus ), who controlled the military upon reaching the Age of 18 integral! No evidence of the Empire in 539 BC ) pre-war aerial clashes between Israel and Syria 's legislative is. Also kill civilians in retaliatory strikes several intelligence agencies, [ 236 ] them... 1961, after a coup on 31 January 1973, Hafez al-Assad died on 10 June 2000 Archives. [ 250 ], control of the fifteen states that comprise the so-called `` of! 'S violence against civilians has also seen it suspended from the Romans to the Ottomans intelligence.! Located in the northeast in 1956 99 per square mile ) 234 ], in 2010, or 74.2 for! Rectangular houses of Mureybet culture North American NGO Freedom House are widespread, water and Environment group, a! Three levels of courts: courts of appeals, and tennis short-lived independent Kingdom of Ebla be..., much of Syria has three levels of courts: courts of first instance courts. Of Arab Argentines are from either Lebanese or Syrian background the fields are a natural of. 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